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Table of Contents
Overview of Perceval
Connecting to Perceval
Moving files to/from Perceval
Listing available resources
Loading software modules
Running a serial (single-core) job
Running a parallel (multiple-core) job
Running interactive jobs
Monitoring the status of jobs
Installing your own software
Perceval/Perceval2 (two names, same cluster) is a CentOS 7 Linux compute cluster that was made available with NIH funds and it is intended to be used exclusively for NIH-funded projects. This cluster is currently configured with
132 CPU-only nodes, each with 24 Intel Xeon E5-2680 cores + 128 GB RAM
8 GPU nodes with 24 Intel Xeon E5-xxxx cores + 128 GB RAM
1 Large Memory node with 48 Intel Xeon E5-xxxx cores + 1.5 TB RAM
Default run time = 2 hours in the main partition (30 min in the testing partition)
Maximum run time = 2 days (48 hours)
ssh [your NetID]@perceval.hpc.rutgers.edu
There are many different ways to this: secure copy (scp), remote sync (rsync), an FTP client (FileZilla), etc.
Let’s assume you’re logged-in to a local workstation or laptop (not already logged-in to Perceval).
To send files from your local system to your Perceval /home directory,
scp file-1.txt file-2.txt [NetID]@perceval.hpc.rutgers.edu:/home/[NetID]
To pull a file from your Perceval /home directory to your laptop (note the “.” at the end of this command),
scp [NetID]@perceval.hpc.rutgers.edu:/home/[NetID]/file-1.txt .
If you want to copy an entire directory and its contents using scp, you’ll need to “package” your directory into a single, compressed file before moving it:
tar -czf my-directory.tar.gz my-directory
After moving it, you can “unpackage” that .tar.gz file to get your original directory and contents:
tar -xzf my-directory.tar.gz
Before requesting resources (compute nodes), it’s helpful to see what resources are available and what cluster partitions (job queues) to use for certain resources.
Example of using the ‘sinfo’ command:
$ sinfo PARTITION AVAIL TIMELIMIT NODES STATE NODELIST main up 7-00:00:00 1 drain memnode001 main up 7-00:00:00 2 mix cuda004,node045 main up 7-00:00:00 138 alloc cuda[001-003,005-008],node[001-044,046-132] testing* up 2:00:00 2 alloc node[131-132] largemem up 2-00:00:00 1 drain memnode001 gpu up 2-00:00:00 1 mix cuda004 gpu up 2-00:00:00 7 alloc cuda[001-003,005-008]
Understanding this output:
There are 4 partitions, testing (traditional compute nodes, CPUs only), main (traditional compute nodes, CPUs only), gpu (nodes with general-purpose GPU accelerators), largemem (traditional compute node with additional memory).
The upper limit for a job’s run time is 2 days (48 hours), but the testing partition has a limit of 2 hours.
Allocated (alloc) nodes are currently running jobs.
Mixed (mix) nodes have jobs using some, but not all, CPU cores onboard.
Idle nodes are currently available for new jobs.
Drained (drain, drng) nodes are not available for use and may be offline for maintenance.
When you first log-in, only basic system-wide tools are available automatically. To use a specific software package that is already installed, you can setup your environment using the module system.
The ‘module avail’ command will show a list of the core (primary) modules available:
$ module avail ---------------------------------------------------- /opt/sw/modulefiles/Core ---------------------------------------------------- ARACNE/20110228 blat/35 gaussian/09revD01 (D) intel_mkl/16.0.3 python/2.7.11 HISAT2/2.0.4 bowtie2/2.2.6 gcc/4.9.3 intel_mkl/17.0.0 (D) python/3.5.0 (D) OpenCV/2.3.1 bowtie2/2.2.9 (D) gcc/5.3 (D) java/1.7.0_79 samtools/0.1.19 STAR/2.5.2a bwa/0.7.12 hdf5/1.8.16 java/1.8.0_66 samtools/1.2 Trinotate/2.0.2 bwa/0.7.13 (D) intel/16.0.1 java/1.8.0_73 (D) samtools/1.3.1 (D) bamtools/2.4.0 cuda/7.5 intel/16.0.3 (D) modeller/9.16 trinityrnaseq/2.1.1 bcftools/1.2 cufflinks/2.2.1 intel/17.0.0 mvapich2/2.1 bedtools2/2.25.0 gaussian/g03revE01 intel_mkl/16.0.1 python/2.7.10
Understanding this output:
The packages with a (D) are the default versions for a package with multiple versions available.
To see a comprehensive list of all available modules (not just the core modules) use the ‘module spider’ command.
$ module spider ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ The following is a list of the modules currently available: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ARACNE: ARACNE/20110228 ARACNE: an algorithm for the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in a mammalian cellular context HISAT2: HISAT2/2.0.4 HISAT2: graph-based alignment of next generation sequencing reads to a population of genomes HMMER: HMMER/3.1b2 HMMER: biosequence analysis using profile hidden Markov models NAMD: NAMD/2.10 NAMD: Scalable Molecular Dynamics ORCA: ORCA/3.0.3 ORCA: An ab initio, DFT and semiempirical SCF-MO package OpenCV: OpenCV/2.3.1 OpenCV: Open Source Computer Vision PETSc: PETSc/3.6.3 PETSc: Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation R-Project: R-Project/3.2.2 R: The R Project for Statistical Computing ... (it's a long list)
Loading a software module changes your environment settings so that the executable binaries, needed libraries, etc. are available for use. To load a software module, use the ‘module load’ command, followed by the name and version desired. To remove a module, use the ‘module unload’ command. To remove all loaded software modules, use the ‘module purge’ command. To load the default version of any software package, use the ‘module load’ command but only specify the name of the package, not the version number.
Below are some examples.
$ module load intel/16.0.3 mvapich2/2.1 $ module list Currently Loaded Modules: 1) intel/16.0.3 2) mvapich2/2.1 $ module unload mvapich2/2.1 $ module list Currently Loaded Modules: 1) intel/16.0.3 $ module purge $ module list No modules loaded $ module load intel $ module list Currently Loaded Modules: 1) intel/16.0.3
If you always use the same software modules, your ~/.bashrc (special login script) can be configured to load those modules automatically every time you log in. Just add your desired ‘module load’ command(s) to the end of that file. You can always edit your ~/.bashrc file to change or remove those commands later.
Here’s an example of a SLURM job script for a serial job. I’m running a program called “zipper” which is in my /scratch (temporary work) directory. I plan to run my entire job from within my /scratch directory.
#!/bin/bash #SBATCH --partition=main # Partition (job queue) #SBATCH --job-name=zipx001a # Assign an 8-character name to your job, no spaces, no special characters #SBATCH --nodes=1 # Number of compute nodes #SBATCH --ntasks=1 # Number of tasks to run (often = cores) on each node #SBATCH --mem=2000 # Total real memory required (MB) for each node #SBATCH --time=02:00:00 # Total run time limit (HH:MM:SS) #SBATCH --output=slurm.%N.%j.out # Combined STDOUT and STDERR output file #SBATCH --export=ALL # Export you current environment settings to the job environment cd /scratch/[your NetID] /scratch/[your NetID]/zipper/2.4.1/bin/zipper < my-input-file.in
Understanding this job script:
A job script contains the instructions for the SLURM workload manager (cluster job scheduler) to manage resource allocation, scheduling, and execution of your job.
The lines beginning with #SBATCH contain commands intended only for the workload manager.
My job will be assigned to the “main” partition (job queue).
This job will only use 1 CPU core and should not require much memory, so I have requested only 2 GB of RAM — it’s a good practice to request only about 2 GB per core for any job unless you know that your job will require more than that.
My job will be terminated when the run time limit has been reached, even if the program I’m running is not finished. It is not possible to extend this time after a job starts running.
Any output that would normally go to the command line will be redirected into the output file I have specified, and that file will be named using the compute node name and the job ID number.
Here’s how to run a batch job, loading modules and using the sbatch command:
First, be sure to confiure your environment as needed for running your job. This usually means loading any needed modules.
$ module purge $ module load intel_mkl/16.0.3 intel/16.0.3 $ sbatch my-job-script.sh
The sbatch command reads the contents of your job script and forwards those instructions to the SLURM workload manager. Depending on the level of activity on the cluster, your job may wait in the job queue for mintues or hours before it begins running.
Here’s an example of a SLURM job script for a parallel job.
See the previous (serial) example for some important details omitted here.
#!/bin/bash #SBATCH --partition=main # Partition (job queue) #SBATCH --job-name=zipx001a # Assign an 8-character name to your job, no spaces, no special characters #SBATCH --nodes=1 # Number of compute nodes #SBATCH --ntasks=16 # Number of tasks to run (often = cores) on each node #SBATCH --mem=124000 # Total real memory required (MB) for each node #SBATCH --time=02:00:00 # Total run time limit (HH:MM:SS) #SBATCH --output=slurm.%N.%j.out # Combined STDOUT and STDERR output file #SBATCH --export=ALL # Export you current environment settins to the job environment cd /scratch/[your NetID] srun -n 16 --mpi=pmi2 /scratch/[your NetID]/zipper/2.4.1/bin/zipper < my-input-file.in
Understanding this job script:
The srun command is used to coordinate communication among the parallel tasks of your job. You must specify how many tasks you will be using, and this number usually matches the –ntasks value in your job’s hardware allocation request.
This job will use 16 CPU cores and nearly 8 GB of RAM per core, so I have requested a total of 124 GB of RAM — it’s a good practice to request only about 2 GB per core for any job unless you know that your job will require more than that.
Here’s how to run a batch job using the sbatch command:
$ module purge $ module load intel_mkl/16.0.3 intel/16.0.3 mvapich2/2.1 $ sbatch my-job-script.sh
Note here that I’m loading the module for the parallel communication libraries (MPI libraries) needed by my parallel executable.
An interactive job gives you an active connection to a compute node (or collection of compute nodes) where you will have a login shell and you can run commands directly on the command line. This can be useful for testing, short analysis tasks, computational steering, or for running GUI-based applications.
When submitting an interactive job, you can request resources (single or multiple cores, memory, GPU nodes, etc.) just like you would in a batch job:
[NetID@perceval2 ~]$ srun --partition=main --nodes=1 --ntasks=1 --mem=2000 --time=00:30:00 --export=ALL --pty bash -i srun: job 1365471 queued and waiting for resources srun: job 1365471 has been allocated resources [NetID@node045 ~]$
Notice that, when the interactive job is ready, the command prompt changes from NetID@perceval2 to NetID@node045. I’ve been automatically logged-in to node045 and I’m now ready to run commands there. To exit this shell and return to the shell running on the perceval2 login node, type the ‘exit’ command.
The simplest way to quickly check on the status of active jobs is by using the squeue command:
$ squeue -u [your NetID] JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST(REASON) 1633383 main zipper xx345 R 1:15 1 node036
Here, the state of each job is typically listed as being either PD (pending), R (running), along with the amount of allocated time that has been used (DD-HH:MM:SS).
For summary accounting information (including jobs that have already completed), you can use the sacct command:
$ sacct JobID JobName Partition Account AllocCPUS State ExitCode ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------- 1633383 zipper main statx 16 RUNNING 0:0
Here, the state of each job is listed as being either PENDING, RUNNING, COMPLETED, or FAILED.
To terminate a job, regardless of whether it is running or just waiting in the job queue, use the ‘scancel’ command and specify the JobID number of the job you wish to terminate:
$ scancel 1633383
A job can only be cancelled by the owner of that job. When you terminate a job, a message from the SLURM workload manager will be directed to STDERR and that message will look like this:
slurmstepd: *** JOB 1633383 ON node036 CANCELLED AT 2016-10-04T15:38:07 ***
Package management systems like yum or apt-get which are used to install software in typical Linux systems are not available to users of shared computing resources like the HPCC. Thus, most packages need to be compiled from their source code and then installed. Further, most packages are generally configured to be installed in /usr or /opt, but these locations are inaccessible to (not writeable for) general users. Special care must be taken by users to ensure that the packages will be installed in their own /home directory (/home/[NetID]). As an example, here are the steps for installing ZIPPER, a generic example package that doesn’t actually exist:
(1) Download your software package. You can usually download a software package to your laptop, and then transfer the downloaded package to your /home/[NetID] directory on the HPCC for installation. Alternatively, if you have the http or ftp address for the package, you can transfer that package directly to your home directory while logged-in to the HPCC using the wget utility:
$ wget http://www.zippersimxl.org/public/zipper/zipper-4.1.5.tar.gz
(2) Unzip and unpack the .tar.gz (or .tgz) file. Most software packages are compressed in a .zip, .tar or .tar.gz file. You can use the unzip or tar programs to unpack the contents of these files:
$ tar -zxf zipper-4.1.5.tar.gz
(3) Read the instructions for installing. Several packages come with an INSTALL or README script with instructions for setting up that package. Many will also explicitly include instructions on how to do so on a system where you do not have root access. Alternatively, the installation instructions may be posted on the website from which you downloaded the software.
$ cd zipper-4.1.5 $ less README
(4) Load the required software modules for installation. Software packages generally have dependencies, i.e., they require other software packages in order to be installed. The README or INSTALL file will generally list these dependencies. Often, you can use the available modules to satisfy these dependencies. But sometimes, you may also need to install the dependencies for yourself. Here, we load the dependencies for ZIPPER:
$ module load intel_mkl/16.0.3 intel/16.0.3 mvapich2/2.1
(5) Perform the installation. The next few steps vary widely but instructions almost always come with the downloaded source package. Guidance on the special arguments passed to the configure script is often available by running the ‘./configure –help’ command. What you see below is just a typical example of special options that might be specified.
$ ./configure --prefix=/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5 --disable-float --enable-mpi --without-x --disable-shared $ make -j 4 $ make install
Several packages are set up in a similar way, i.e., using configure, then make, and make install. Note the options provided to the configure command – these differ from package to package, and are documented as part of the setup instructions, but the prefix command is almost always supported. It specifies where the package will be installed. Unless this special argument is provided, the package will generally be installed to a location such as /usr/local or /opt, but users do not have write-access to those directories. Thus, we install to the /home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5 directory. The following directories are created after installation:
/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/bin where executables will be placed
/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/lib where library files will be placed
/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/include where header files will be placed
/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/share/man where documentation will be placed
(6) Configure environment settings
The above bin, lib, include and share directories are generally not part of the shell environment, i.e., the shell and other programs don’t “know” about these directories. Therefore, the last step in the installation process is to add these directories to the shell environment:
export PATH=/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/bin:$PATH export C_INCLUDE_PATH=/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/include:$C_INCLUDE_PATH export CPLUS_INCLUDE_PATH=/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/include:$CPLUS_INCLUDE_PATH export LIBRARY_PATH=/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/lib:$LIBRARY_PATH export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH export MANPATH=/home/[NetID]/zipper/4.1.5/share/man:$MANPATH
These export commands are standalone commands that change the shell environment, but these new settings are only valid for the current shell session. Rather than executing these commands for every shell session, they can be added to the end of the ~/.bashrc which will execute them every time you log-in to an HPCC compute or log-in node.